How is MZ generated
While it is known that L and Z are sourced from a diet containing fruits and vegetables, until recently it was believed that retinal MZ was derived wholly and solely from retinal L however, this has recently and legitimately been called into question, as this doctrine was based on only two studies, neither of which were performed in humans. Further, the presence of MZ in a typical human diet has recently been confirmed. (Nolan et al, 2014)
Of interest, research has also shown that individuals at risk of developing AMD lack MP centrally, where MZ is the dominant carotenoid, and the macular pigment of such subjects only normalises if supplemented with a formulation containing all three macular carotenoids and not when containing a formulation that lacks MZ.